Monday, April 25, 2016
JAMA, June 10, 1992--Vol 267, No. 22
Television and Violence
The Scale of the Problem and Where to Go From Here
Brandon S. Centerwall, MD, MPH
IN 1975, Rothenberg's Special Communication in JAMA, "Effect of Television Violence on Children and Youth," first alerted the medical community to the deforming effects the viewing of television violence has on normal child development, increasing levels of physical aggressiveness and violence.1 In response to physicians' concerns sparked by Rothenberg's communication, the 1976 American Medical Association (AMA) House of Delegates passed Resolution 38: "The House declares TV violence threatens the health and welfare of young Americans, commits itself to remedial actions with interested parties, and encourages opposition to TV programs containing violence and to their sponsors."2
Other professional organizations have since come to a similar conclusion, including the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Psychological Association. In light of recent research findings, in 1990 the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a policy statement: "Pediatricians should advise parents to limit their children's television viewing to 1 to 2 hours per day." Rothenberg's communication was largely based on the findings of the 1968 National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence5 and the 1972 Surgeon General's report, Television and Growing Up: The Impact of Televised Violence.6Those findings were updated and reinforced by the 1982 report of the National Institute of Mental Health, Television and Behavior: Ten Years of Scientific Progress and Implications for the Eighties, again documenting a broad consensus in the scientific literature that exposure to television violence increases children's physical aggressiveness.7 Each of these governmental inquiries necessarily left open the question of whether this increase in children's physical aggressiveness would later lead to increased rates of violence. Although there had been dozens of laboratory investigations and short-term field studies (3 months or less), few long-term field studies (2 years or more) had been completed and reported. Since the 1982 National Institute of Mental Health report, long-term field studies have come into their own, some 20 having now been published.8
In my commentary, I discuss television's effects within the context of normal child development; give an overview of natural exposure to television as a cause of aggression and violence; summarize my own research findings on television as a cause of violence; and suggest a course of action....
All Canadian and US studies of the effect of prolonged childhood exposure to television (2 years or more) demonstrate a positive relationship between earlier exposure to television and later physical aggressiveness, although not all studies reach statistical significance.8The critical period of exposure to television is preadolescent childhood. Later variations in exposure, in adolescence and adulthood, do not exert any additional effect.23,24 However, the aggression-enhancing effect of exposure to television is chronic, extending into later adolescence and adulthood.8,25 This implies that any interventions should be designed for children and their caregivers rather than for the general adult population....
Thursday, April 14, 2016
Thursday, April 07, 2016
First to go is the PM of Iceland.
The US is the only nation known that imposes income tax obligations on all Americans irrespective of their residence. British, German, French, Swiss, Lebanese citizens pay no tax on their overseas income or employment. But a US citizen employed in Qatar, Kuwait, Dubai, Panama, or Paris, a child of a foreign US missionary in China, a US doctor with Doctors without Borders, a US person that owns a tourist retreat, restaurant, hotel, or American Bar in Casablanca must file and pay US taxes. Every year every US Embassy hosts visits by IRS agents (paid for with tax dollars) to get resident Americans to file and pay income taxes.
US Treasury has bullied foreign financial institutions with Draconian, punitive fines to disclose identities and details of the accounts of US citizens resident outside the US. What country does that? This is not about drug smugglers, blood diamonds, or white slavery. This is about TAXES, and the US bully asserts extraterritorial jurisdiction whenever and however it can.
Russian claims that this leak comes from US Intelligence to destabilize Russia might have veracity. Treasury is part of the Intelligence Community which has means to hack these servers. Hillary thought she could destroy her email evidence with a re-format, but Wikileaks could find them elsewhere and the FBI has them now. Treasury has a ruthless agenda with no oversight.
This International Registry proposal is financial Big Brother on the scale of One World Government. Shell companies today, your credit card transactions, phone calls, and grocery lists tomorrow. Snowden is a hero.
Taxation is Theft.
Try this freedom lovers: http://tinyurl.com/NoSpies33
Wednesday, April 06, 2016
Friday, April 01, 2016
THE PSYCHOPATHIC SCHOOL
John Taylor GattoHe came to the conclusion that the government education system is broken, unfixable, and he was quitting. He then wrote the book, The Underground History of American Education, a classic on the tragedy happening in American education. He documents the takeover by socialist, centralized-government people who were not interested in honest education, but in mind-control. (On that subject, see also two books by Samuel Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary? and NEA: Trojan Horse in American Education
Our form of compulsory schooling is an invention of the State of Massachusetts around 1850. It was resisted - sometimes with guns - by an estimated eighty percent of the Massachusetts population, the last outpost in Barnstable on Cape Cod not surrendering its children until the 1880s, when the area was seized by militia and children marched to school under guard.
Now here is a curious idea to ponder. Senator Ted Kennedy's office released a paper not too long ago that prior to compulsory education the state literacy rate was ninety-eight percent, and after it the figure never exceeded ninety-one percent, where it stands in 1990.
Here is another curiosity to think about. The home-schooling movement has quietly grown to a size where one and half million young people are being educated entirely by their own parents; last month the education press reported the amazing news that children schooled at home seem to be five or even ten years ahead of their formally trained peers in their ability to think.
Two institutions at present control our children's lives: television and schooling, in that order. Both of these reduce the real world of wisdom, fortitude, temperance, and justice to a never-ending, nonstop abstraction. In centuries past, the time of childhood and adolescence would have been occupied in real work, real charity, real adventures, and the realistic search for mentors who might teach what you really wanted to learn. A great deal of time was spent in community pursuits, practicing affection, meeting and studying every level of the community, learning how to make a home, and dozens of other tasks necessary to becoming a whole man or woman.
But here is the calculus of time the children I teach must deal with:
- Out of the 168 hours in each week my children sleep 56. That leaves them 112 hours a week out of which to fashion a self.
- According to recent reports children watch 55 hours of television a week. That then leaves them 57 hours a week in which to grow up.
- My children attend school 30 hours a week, use about 8 hours getting ready for and traveling to and from school, and spend an average of 7 hours a week in homework - a total of 45 hours.
- During that time they are under constant surveillance. They have no private time or private space and are disciplined if they try to assert individuality in the use of time or space.
It's not enough, is it? The richer the kid, of course, the less television he or she watches, but the rich kid's time is just as narrowly prescribed by a somewhat broader catalogue of commercial entertainments and the inevitable assignment to a series of private lessons in areas seldom of his or her own choice.
- That leaves them 12 hours a week out of which to create a unique consciousness. Of course my kids eat, too, and that takes some time - not much because they've lost the tradition of family dining - but if we allot 3 hours a week to evening meals we arrive at a net amount of private time for each child of 9 hours per week.
But these activities are just a more cosmetic way to create dependent human beings, unable to fill their own hours, unable to initiate lines of meaning to give substance and pleasure to their existence. It's a national disease, this dependency and aimlessness, and I think schooling and television and lessons have a lot to do with it.
Get The Book!Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden Curriculum of Compulsory Schooling by John Taylor Gatto
For Gatto's superb The Underground History of American Education, call The Odysseus Group, in NYC, 212 529-9397.
Suggested Reading List - the Demise of the Educational System - OBE (Outcome-Based Education), NEA (National Education Association), educational psychology, German psychology & influences, demise of public education, educational sabotage, Wundt, Pavlov, Dewey, Skinner, Watson.
|©Gene Zimmer 1999 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED|